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E-ALERT0116[美国教育交流中心信息咨询中心](B)

[日期:2005-12-09] 来源:美国教育交流中心信息咨询中心  作者:美国国务院国际信息局编辑 [字体: ]
E-ALERT0116[美国教育交流中心信息咨询中心](B)

美国国务院国际信息局编辑 发表:美国教育交流中心信息咨询中心/2005年12月8日转发;学术交流网/美国教育交流/2003年12月09日转发

上接A篇

goal should be to devise an exit strategy for Iraq that focuses on
bolstering Iraqi government legitimacy. The authors strongly reject the idea
of withdrawing from Iraq according to a formal timetable.

http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB627.pdf

[pdf format, 68 pages]

Item# 05E016
THE ROLE OF IMMIGRANTS IN THE U.S. LABOR MARKET.
Nabeel A. Alsalam and Ralph E. Smith.
Congressional Budget Office. November 2005.


The role of immigrants in the U.S. labor market has long
generated substantial interest among policymakers. Lawmakers have considered
a broad range of issues concerning foreign-born workers -- from the number
of immigrants permitted to enter the United States and the criteria for
determining who is admitted, to the rules governing
their employment, and myriad questions related to undocumented workers.

This paper, requested by the Chairman and Ranking Member of the Senate
Finance Committee, is the third of several reports by the Congressional
Budget Office (CBO) that present facts and research on immigration to help
inform the agency's federal budget and economic projections. The paper
focuses on the role of immigrants in the labor market -- the skills they
bring to that market; the types of jobs they hold; their compensation; and
their impact on the native-born workforce. In keeping with CBO's mandate to
provide objective, nonpartisan analysis, this paper makes no
recommendations.

http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/68xx/doc6853/11-10-Immigration.pdf

[pdf format, 35 pages]

Item# 05E017
SECURITY CONTROLS ON THE ACCESS OF FOREIGN SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS TO
THE UNITED STATES.
Commission on Scientific Communication and National Security.
Center for Strategic and International Studies. October 2005.

This white paper argues that the United States has strongly benefited
from foreign engagement in the past, and in an increasingly globalized
society, the value of foreign interaction continues to increase. For
instance, the nation's scientific and technical infrastructure has long been
enriched by foreign students, scholars, and professionals, and
is now highly dependent on them. Therefore, the health and
vitality of the U.S. science and technology base - and the continued ability
of that base to support economic competitiveness, improve health and quality
of life, and maintain and enhance national and homeland security - depend
critically on foreign interaction.

The paper notes that openness can likewise facilitate those who threaten the
security of the U.S. and its inhabitants. As a result, the national security
community must identify individuals who intend to spy on the U.S. and
U.S.-based commercial enterprises or to illegally export controlled
technologies. At the same time, work must be done to ensure that U.S. visa
policies facilitate, rather than undermine, long-term U.S. interests
concerning foreign students, scientists, suppliers, and employees.

The paper also observes that because prospective visitors base their travel
plans on their perceptions of the difficulties they may encounter, improving
foreign perceptions of the U.S. visa system is as
important as improving the system itself. It discusses the growing
misperceptions overseas that the United States no longer welcomes
international student and scientists and is an unfriendly place to study and
conduct research. Such misperceptions are fueled in part by reports of visa
difficulties and delays that do not reflect recent improvements to the
system.

[Note: Contains copyrighted material.]

http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/051005_whitepaper.pdf

[pdf format, 24 pages]

Item# 05E018
THE STATE OF FOOD INSECURITY IN THE WORLD 2005 [SOFI 2005].
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). November
2005.

Subtitled, "Eradicating world hunger - key to achieving the Millennium
Development Goals," SOFI 2005 focuses on the critical importance of reducing
hunger, both as the explicit target of the World Food Summit (WFS) and as
the essential condition for achieving the MDGs. The report's first section
analyses long-term trends in reducing undernourishment, and explores the
impact of economic growth, governance and natural disasters. The second
section examines each of the MDGs, highlighting ways that hunger holds back
development and that hunger reduction could accelerate progress.

Tables (pp. 30-35) provide FAO's latest estimates of undernourishment and of
progress towards the WFS and MDG targets for reducing hunger; and key
indicators for the other MDGs.

[Note: Contains copyrighted material.]


[English, pdf format,
40 pages]

Item# 05E019
TRADE INTEGRATION IN THE AMERICAS.
M. Angeles Villarreal.
Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
November 22, 2005.

Since the 1990s, the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean have been
a focus of United States trade policy, as demonstrated by the passage of the
North American Free Trade Agreement, the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement
(FTA), and the Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement.
Currently, the United States is in the process of completing FTA
negotiations with Andean countries, and of reactivating talks for a
U.S.-Panama FTA and a Free Trade Area of the Americas.

The U.S. efforts in regional trade integration in the Americas are
significant for Congress because U.S. entry into any FTA may only be done
with the legislative approval of the Congress. U.S. supporters of trade
integration in the Americas believe it benefits U.S. prosperity, strengthens
democratic regimes, and supports U.S. values and security. Forming closer
economic relations with countries in the region is seen by some as a means
to improve cooperation on such issues as the environment and anti-drug
efforts. U.S. opponents of trade
integration are concerned that hemispheric free trade would lead
to a loss of jobs in the United States through increased import competition,
or to U.S. companies shifting production to lower-wage countries with weak
labor standards.

Similarly, U.S. policymakers, concerned with trade integration's
implications for the United States, debate the pros and cons of
deepened trade relations with Latin America and the Caribbean, and whether
the current focus on bilateral and regional FTAs is the most appropriate
trade policy. Some analysts believe that such a policy is creating a
complicated network of trade agreements throughout the region that could
slow down the FTAA process. Others believe that regional trade agreements
lead to the consolidation of regional trade areas into larger free trade
areas, and may eventually lead to a hemispheric free trade area.

http://opencrs.cdt.org/rpts/RL33162_20051122.pdf

[pdf format, 32 pages]

Item# 05E020
WHO MULTI-COUNTRY STUDY ON WOMEN'S HEALTH AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AGAINST
WOMEN.
Gender, Women and Health Department.
World Health Organization. November 2005.

This summary report presents initial results based on interviews with 24,000
women by carefully trained interviewers. The study was implemented by WHO,
in collaboration with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine,
research institutions and women's organizations in the participating
countries. This report covers 15 sites and 10 countries: Bangladesh, Brazil,
Ethiopia, Japan, Peru, Namibia, Samoa, Serbia and Montenegro, Thailand and
the United Republic of Tanzania.

Report findings document the prevalence of intimate partner violence and its
association with women's physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health.
Data is included on non-partner violence and sexual abuse during childhood.
Information is also provided on women's responses: Whom do women turn to and
whom do they tell about the violence in their lives? Do they leave or fight
back? Which services do they use and what response do they get?

The report concludes with 15 recommendations to strengthen national
commitment and action on violence against women. Data from the report show
that violence against women is widespread and demands a public health
response.

[Note: Contains copyrighted material.]


[pdf format, Report downloadable in nine sections]

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